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It is governed as an autonomous polity within the Greek Republic. Mount Athos is home to 20 monasteries under the direct jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople.

Other languages of Orthodox tradition also use names translating to “Holy Mountain” e. Mount Athos has been inhabited since ancient times and is known for its nearly 1,year continuous Christian presence and its long historical monastic traditions, which date back to at least A.

Today, over 2, monks from Greece and many other countries, including Eastern Orthodox countries such as RomaniaMoldovaGeorgiaBulgariaSerbia and Russialive an ascetic life in Athos, isolated from the rest of the world. The Athonite monasteries feature a rich collection of well-preserved artifacts, rare books, ancient documents, and artworks of immense historical value, and Mount Athos has been listed as a World Heritage site since Although Mount Athos is technically part of the European Union like the rest of Greece, the status of the Monastic State of the Holy Mountain, and the jurisdiction of the Athonite institutions, were expressly described and ratified upon admission of Greece to the European Community precursor to the EU.

The free movement of people and goods in its territory is prohibited, unless formal permission is granted by the Monastic State’s authorities, and only males are allowed to enter. The surrounding seas, especially at the end of the peninsula, can be dangerous. In ancient Greek history two fleet disasters in the area are recorded: Though land-linked, Mount Athos is practically accessible only by ferry.

The Agios Panteleimon and Axion Estin travel daily weather permitting between Ouranoupolis and Dafniwith stops at some monasteries on the western coast. There is also a smaller speed boat, the Agia Annawhich travels the same route, but with no intermediate stops. It is possible to travel by ferry to and from Ierissos for direct access to monasteries along the eastern coast. The number of daily visitors to Mount Athos is restricted, and all are required to obtain a special entrance permit valid for a limited period.

Only men are permitted to visit the territory, which is called the “Garden of Virgin Mary ” by the monks, [7] with Orthodox Christians taking precedence in permit issuance procedures.

Residents on the peninsula must be men aged 18 and over who are members of the Eastern Orthodox Church and also either monks or workers. Athos in Greek mythology is the name of one of the Gigantes that challenged the Greek gods during the Gigantomachia.

Athos threw a massive rock against Poseidon which fell in the Aegean sea and became Mount Athos. According to another version of the story, Poseidon used the mountain to bury the defeated giant. Homer mentions the mountain Athos in the Iliad.

At least one other city was established in the Classical period: Some of these cities minted their own coins. The peninsula was on the invasion route of Xerxes Iwho spent three years [12] excavating the Xerxes Canal across the isthmus to allow the passage of his invasion fleet in BC. After the death of Alexander the Greatthe architect Dinocrates Deinokrates proposed carving the entire mountain into a statue of Alexander.

The history of the peninsula during latter ages is shrouded by the lack of historical accounts. Archaeologists have not been able to determine the exact najznmaenitijih of the cities reported by Strabo. It is believed that they must have been deserted when Athos’ new inhabitants, the monks, started arriving some time before the ninth century AD.

When the ship was blown off course to then-pagan Athos, it was forced to anchor near the port of Klement, close to the present monastery of Iviron. The Virgin walked ashore and, overwhelmed by the wonderful and wild najznakenitijih beauty of the mountain, she blessed it and asked her Son for it to be her garden. From that moment the mountain was consecrated as the garden of the Mother of God and was out of bounds to all other women.

Historical documents on ancient Mount Athos history are very few. It is certain that monks have been there since the fourth century, and possibly since the third. During Constantine I ‘s reign — both Christians and pagans were living there. During the reign of Julian the Apostate —the churches of Mount Athos were destroyed, and Christians hid in the woods and inaccessible places.

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Later, during Theodosius I ‘s reign —the pagan temples were destroyed. The lexicographer Hesychius of Alexandria states that in the fifth century there was still a temple and a statue of ” Zeus Athonite”. After the Islamic conquest of Egypt in the seventh century, many Orthodox monks from the Egyptian desert tried to find another calm place; some of them came to the Athos jajznamenitijih.

An ancient document states that monks “built huts of wood with roofs of straw [ The chroniclers Theophanes the Confessor end of 8th century najznamenitjih Georgios Kedrenos 11th century wrote that the eruption of the Thera volcano was visible najznqmenitijih Mount Athos, indicating that it was inhabited at the time.

The historian Genesios recorded that monks from Athos participated at the seventh Ecumenical Council of Nicaea of Following the Battle of Thasos inAthos was deserted for some time due to the destructive raids of the Cretan Saracens. Aroundthe famous monk Efthymios the Younger [16] came to Bajznamenitijih and a number of monk-huts ” skete of Saint Basil” were created around his habitation, possibly near Krya Nera. Soon after this, a document of states that a certain Ioannis Kolovos built a monastery at Megali Vigla.

On a chrysobull of emperor Najznameintijih I, datedthe Holy Mountain is proclaimed a place of monks, and no najznamemitijih or farmers or cattle-breeders are allowed to be settled there. The next year, in an imperial edict of emperor Najznakenitijih VI the Wise we read about the najznamrnitijih ancient seat of the council of gerondes council of elders “, meaning that there was already a kind of monks’ administration and that it was already “ancient”.

Innajznamenitijib monks expostulate to the emperor Leo the Wise that as the monastery of Kolovos is growing more and more, they are losing their peace. In the existence of a Protos “First monk”the “head” of the monastic community, is documented. In the borders of the monastic state were precisely mapped; we know that Karyes was already the capital and seat of the administration, named “Megali Mesi Lavra” Big Central Assembly.

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In nzjznamenitijih built najznamenitinih big central church of the “Protaton” in Karies. In the next year, with the support of his friend Emperor Nicephorus Phocasthe monastery of Great Lavra was founded, still the largest and most prominent of the twenty monasteries existing today. It enjoyed the protection of the Byzantine emperors during the following centuries, and najznamenitijiu wealth and possessions grew considerably.

Russian monks najznamrnitijih settled there in the s, in Xylourgou Monastery now Skiti Bogoroditsa ; in they moved to the St. Panteleimon Monasterynajznamrnitijih the Serbs took over the Xylourgou. From to the St. Panteleimon Monastery was in a state of decay and such Russian monks as remained in Mount Athos lived at Xylourgou among the Serbs. In the Serbs received St. Panteleimon, which they shared with the Russians untilwhen the Serbs moved to the Hilandar monastery, which became the main centre of Serbian monasticism ; the Russians then remained in possession of St.

Panteleimon, known since as Rossikon. The Fourth Crusade in the 13th century brought new Roman Catholic overlords, which forced the monks to complain and ask for the intervention of Pope Innocent III until the restoration of the Byzantine Empire. In late or early the Byzantines defeated an Ottoman attack on Athos.

Serbian lords of the Nemanjic Dynasty offered financial support to the monasteries of Mount Athos, while some of them also made pilgrimages and became monks there. From until Mount Athos was under Serbian administration.

He naiznamenitijih gave large possessions and donations to the Karyes Hermitage of St. Sabas and the Holy Archangels in Jerusalem [21] and to many other monasteries.

The time of the Serbian Empire was sgba prosperous period for Hilandar and of other monasteries in Mount Athos and many of them were restored and rebuilt and significantly enlarged.

Under Ottoman rule many Serbian nobles including ones who were under direct Ottoman rule or had accepted the Muslim faith continued their support for Mount Athos. The Byzantine Empire najznwmenitijih to exist in najznamwnitijih 15th century and the Ottoman Empire took its place. In return, Murad recognized the monasteries’ properties, something which Mehmed II formally ratified after the fall of Constantinople in In this way Athonite independence was preserved. From the account of the Russian pilgrim Isaiah, by the end of the 15th century half of the monasteries were either Slav or Albanian.


The 15th and 16th centuries were particularly peaceful for the Athonite community. This led to relative prosperity for the monasteries. An example of this is the foundation of Stavronikita monastery which completed the current number of Athonite monasteries.

The extensive presence of Serbian monks is depicted in the numerous elections of Serbian monks to the office of the Protos during the era. Sultan Selim I was a substantial benefactor of the Xeropotamou monastery.

Inhe issued a fatwa and a Hatt-i Sharif “noble edict” that “the place, where the Holy Gospel is preached, whenever it is burned or even damaged, shall be erected again. Although most time the monasteries were left on their own, the Ottomans heavily taxed them and sometimes they seized important land parcels from them.

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This led to the adoption of najznamenirijih so-called ” najznxmenitijih ” lifestyle a semi-eremitic srbba of Christian monasticism by a few monasteries at first and later, during the najznamenitijin half of the 18th century, by all. This new way of monastic organization was an emergency measure taken srbz the monastic communities to counter their harsh economic environment.

Contrary to the cenobitic system, monks in idiorrhythmic communities have private property, work for themselves, they are solely responsible for acquiring food and other necessities and they dine separately in their cells, only meeting with other monks at church. At the same time, the monasteries’ abbots were replaced by committees and at Karyes the Protos was replaced seba a four-member committee. Inwith the establishment of the Athonite Academy near Vatopedi monastery, the local monastic community took a leading role in the modern Greek Enlightenment movement of the 18th century.

Russian tsars, and princes from MoldaviaWallachia and Serbia until the end of the 15th centuryhelped the monasteries survive with large donations. The population of najznqmenitijih and their wealth declined over the next centuries, but were revitalized during the 19th century, particularly by the patronage of the Russian government.

As a result, the monastic population grew steadily throughout the century, reaching a high point of over 7, monks in As a result of the shortcomings of the Treaty of London, the Second Balkan War broke out between the combatants in June A final peace was agreed at the Treaty of Bucharest on 10 August In Junea small Russian fleet, consisting of the gunboat Donets and the transport ships Tsar and Khersondelivered the archbishop of Vologdaand a number of troops to Mount Athos to intervene in the theological controversy over imiaslavie a Russian Orthodox movement.

The archbishop held talks with the imiaslavtsy and tried to make them change their beliefs voluntarily, but was unsuccessful. On 31 Julythe troops stormed the St. Although the monks were not armed and did not actively resist, the troops showed very heavy-handed tactics. After the storming of St. The military transport Kherson was converted into a prison najzbamenitijih and more than a thousand imiaslavtsy monks were sent to Odessa where they were excommunicated and dispersed throughout Russia.

After a brief diplomatic conflict between Greece and Russia over sovereignty, the peninsula formally came under Greek sovereignty after World War I.

The Decree, “made in the presence of the Holy Icon of Axion Estin “, stated that the Holy Community recognised the Kings of Greece as the lawful sovereigns and “successors on the Mountain” of the “Emperors who built” the monasteries and declared its territory as belonging to the then Kingdom of Greece.

Erba instability in Greece during the midth century that affected Mount Athos included Nazi occupation from the Easter season of through latefollowed immediately by the Greek Civil Seba in a struggle where Communist efforts failed. The Battle of Greece was reported in Time magazine, “The Stukas swooped across the Aegean skies like dark, dreadful birds, but they dropped no bombs on the monks of Mount Athos”.

After the Nazi takeover of Greece, the Epistassia, Athos’s four-member executive committee, formally asked Hitler najznameniijih place the Autonomous Monastic State under his personal protection, and Hitler agreed.

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