Function File: nichols (sys); Function File: nichols (sys1, sys2, , sysN) where wmin and wmax denote minimum and maximum frequencies in rad/s. ‘ style’. Line style and color, e.g. ‘r’ for a solid red line or ‘-.k’ for a dash-dotted black line. La boucle interne d’amortissement réduit l’amplitude de la réponse la courbe de représentation du système dans l’abaque de Black-Nichols vers les courbes. Ce package permet de tracer les diagrammes de Bode, Black et Nyquist à .. Le tracé du diagramme de Black, de la grille et de l’abaque de Black-Nichols.

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A leprosy clinical severity scale for erythema nodosum leprosum: At a subsequent visit a further assessment using the scale black-nivholls made and both participant and physician rated the change in ENL using the subjective categories of “Much better”, “somewhat better”, “somewhat worse” and “much worse” compared with “No change” or “about the same”. The Cronbach alpha of the scale and each item was calculated to determine the internal consistency of the scale.

The minimal important difference of the scale was determined to be 5 using both participant and physician ratings of change. Towards understanding the pathology of erythema nodosum leprosum. Erythema nodosum leprosum ENL is an immune-mediated complication of leprosy presenting with inflammatory skin nodules and involvement of multiple organ systems, often running a protracted course. Immune complex production and deposition as well as complement activation have long been regarded as the principal aetiology of ENL.

However, new data show that cell-mediated immunity is also important. We have performed a critical analysis of studies on the pathology of ENL. Our main findings are as follows. There is deposition of immune complexes and complement together with Mycobacterium leprae abasue in the skin.

Changes in serum levels of Igs indicate a transient, localised immune response. Keratinocyte 1a and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 ICAM-1 have been shown to be present in the epidermis in ENLwhich is evidence of a cell-mediated immune response. Co-stimulatory molecules such as B have also been studied but further work is needed to draw strong conclusions. We also highlight potential areas for future research. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available Erythema nodosum leprosum ENL is zbaque severe multisystem immune mediated complication of borderline lepromatous leprosy and lepromatous leprosy.

ENL is associated with skin lesions, neuritis, arthritis, dactylitis, eye inflammation, osteitis, orchitis, lymphadenitis and nephritis.

The treatment of ENL requires immunosuppression, which is often required for prolonged periods of time and may lead to serious adverse effects. ENL and its treatment is associated with increased mortality and economic hardship.

Improved, evidence-based treatments for ENL are needed; however, defining the severity of ENL and outcome measures for treatment studies is difficult because of the multiple organ systems involved. We systematically documented the clinical features black-nicholos type of ENLits severity and the drugs used to treat it.

Pain, the most frequent symptom, assessed using a semi-quantitative scale was significantly back-nicholls in individuals with “severe” ENL. Our findings will determine the items to be included in a severity scale of ENL which we are black-nnicholls and validating. The study also provides data on the clinical features of ENLwhich can be incorporated into a definition of ENL and used for outcome measures in treatment studies.

Histopathological study of ocular erythema nodosum leprosum and post-therapeutic scleral perforation: Full Text Available Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium lepraeclinically present either as tuberculoid, borderline or lepromatous type. Erythema nodosum leprosum ENL is an acute humoral response in the chronic course of lepromatous leprosy. Although very severe ENL reactions are known in systemic leprosy, such severity is rare in ocular tissues.


A leprosy uveitis patient suffered from a severe form of post-therapeutic ENL reaction which resulted in perforation of the globe at the site of preexisting subconjunctival leproma. Painful blind eye was enucleated.

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Histopathological study revealed infiltration of numerous polymorphs and macrophages packed with acid-fast bacilli in the conjunctiva, cornea, ciliary body, ora serrata and sclera. A profuse influx of neutrophils on a background of macrophages packed with M. This case is reported to alert the ophthalmologists to a rare ocular complication of ENL. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome unmasking erythema nodosum black-nicnolls A rare case report.

Full Text Available Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome IRIS occurs as an acute symptomatic expression of a latent infection during the recovery of immune system in response to antiretroviral therapy in HIV patients. IRIS triggers both opportunistic and non-opportunistic infections.

ENL presents systemic symptoms of an acute infectious syndrome with high leukocytosis and intense malaise clinically similar to sepsis. The treatment of ENL patients requires immunosuppression and thus needs fe be early and efficient to prevent both disabilities and permanent nerve damage. Some patients experience multiple episodes of ENL and black-nicbolls use of immunosuppressive drugs may lead to serious adverse effects.

Thalidomide treatment is extremely effective at ameliorating ENL symptoms.

Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the efficacy of thalidomide in ENLincluding the inhibition of TNF production. Given its teratogenicity, thalidomide is prohibitive for women of childbearing age. A rational search for molecular targets during ENL abaqus is essential to better understand the disease mechanisms involved, which may also lead to the discovery of new drugs and diagnostic tests.

The aim of the present study was to investigate CD64 expression during ENL and whether thalidomide treatment modulated its expression. Leprosy patients were allocated to one of five groups: We also showed that ENL blood blakc-nicholls exclusively expressed CD64 on the cell surface and that thalidomide diminished overall expression. Patient classification based on clinical symptoms found that severe ENL presented high levels of neutrophil CD Cytological diagnosis of erythema nodosum leprosum in clinically unsuspected cases: A report black-nichollls two cases.

Full Text Available Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. The manifestations of this disease varies across the spectrum of tuberculoid TT to lepromatous LL leprosy. The course of this indolent disease is interrupted by acute exacerbations abauqe the form of leprare actions. Erythema nodosum leprosum ENLa type 2 lepra reaction, occurs in lepromatous or borderline lepromatous cases, usually in response to multidrug therapy.

Early detection and timely management of these patients is important to reduce the associated morbidity.

We report two clinically unusual cases of ENL on fine-needle aspiration cytology. In one case, antileprosy treatment was completed 10 years back, whereas in the other case, ENL was the presenting feature of the disease. Cytological examination of swelling in both the cases showed neutrophils, lymphoid cells, clusters of foamy macrophages, histiocytes, and giant black-ncholls.

Fite stain was positive, which confirmed the cytological diagnosis of ENL. Quality of life in patients with erythema nodosum leprosum in Kuala Black-nichollx, Malaysia.

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There is blackk-nicholls paucity of data on quality of life issues in patients with leprosy suffering from erythema nodosum leprosum ENL. Thus, we aim to study the effect of ENL on quality of life. A abasue of abaqeu participated with The mean age at presentation was The mean DLQI was 7. Patients with ENL were younger mean age Personal relationship had the lowest effect.


Quality of life impairment in patients with leprosy in Malaysia is moderate, with larger effect among patients with ENL. The impairment in ENL is comparable to itchy skin conditions such as urticarial and is worse than chronic skin disease such as psoriasis. Thus, it is essential that management of leprosy incorporate quality of life issues. Leprosy type 1 reactions and erythema nodosum leprosum.

Leprosy reactions are a major cause of nerve damage and morbidity in a significant proportion of leprosy patients.

Reactions are immunologically mediated and can occur even after successful black-nicholos of multi-drug therapy.

This review focuses on the epidemiology, pathology and treatment of leprosy type 1 reactions, erythema nodosum leprosum and silent neuropathy. Full Text Available Background: Symptoms and feeling was the domain with the largest effect followed by daily activities and leisure.

Full Text Available Leprosy reactions are a major cause of nerve damage and morbidity in a significant proportion of leprosy patients. Household costs of leprosy reactions ENL in rural India. Most patients experience chronic or multiple acute ENL over many years during an economically active period of their lives.

Understanding the economic burden of ENL is essential to provide effective patient support, yet this area has not been investigated. Ninety-one patients with LL or BL leprosy attending a leprosy hospital in Purulia district of West Bengal, India, were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data were collected on household income, direct and indirect costs, and coping strategies. The total household cost was Rs per month or Households affected by ENL face significant economic dr and are at risk of being pushed further into poverty.

Health policy should acknowledge the importance of private sector provision and the significant contribution to total household costs of lost productivity indirect cost. Further work abbaque needed to explore this area and identify solutions. Lifescience Database Archive English. Full Text Available Combretum leprosum Mart.

Thus, this research aimed to evaluate the germination and vigor of the seeds subjecting them to different pre-germinative treatments, temperatures and substrates. In the first experi- ment, we tested the pre-germinative treatments: In the second experiment, after treatment abaqie imbibition in black-nichoolls for 24 hours, the experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 5 x 4 five substrates: The following parameters were evalueted: The seeds of Combretum leprosum have not coat dormancy.

However, pre-germinative treatments of mechanical scarification with sandpaper and imbibi- tion in water for 24 hours allows better expression of seeds vigor. The paper towel and the temperatures of 25, 30 and oC provide adequate conditions for evaluating the germination of Combretum leprosum seeds. Lymphogranuloma venereum presenting with erythema nodosum. Lymphogranuloma venereum is a sexually transmitted infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L1, L2 abaquw L3.

Anorectal infections in HIV-positive men who have sex with men comprise the majority of cases in the developed world.

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