A. Malinowski, J. Strzako, Antropologia, PWN, Warszawa, M. Godycki, Zarys Antropometrii, PWN, Warszawa,  R. Martin.
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The estimation of stature on the basis of measurements of the femur Download Report. Published on Jun View Download 0. It was decided to examineisolated bones from human remains undergoing forensic autopsy, and belonging to individuals of both sexes whose growthThe length of the body while alive is one of the key height depending on body length, and also the influence ofinvolutionary processes on body length.
He was the first toof the body that occurs after death: InBreitingerproposed a further method of calculating height from mea-surements of the long bones . The reconstruction ofbody length has been a subject of study since the beginningof the nineteenth century. The authors strza,o the oldest methods,which are of purely historical importance, are: Orfilla ,Langer , Toldt , Topinard  and Beddoe .
In ,Rollet on the basis of the measurements of long bonestaken from French remains established the common factorsby which their length is to be multiplied in order to work outthe length of the zntropologia .
He indicated that dry bones areshorter, relative to fresh bones, by approximately 2 mm. Manouverier began more recent research into height recon-struction in He studied part of the bone materialassert contrary to opinion up to that time that height is afunction of the length of the long bones.
Rollets materialwas further evaluated by Pearson in In his study,Pearson employed statistical methods not used by his pre-decessors: This allowed him to introduce new formulae thatpermitted the calculation of human height on the basis ofbone measurements. He recognized, however, that as a resultof the sharp differentiation of body length among people,these formulae can only be used when they are applied to thepopulation groups on the basis of whose data they weredeveloped.
Pearson further drew attention to the lengtheningparameters of identity established in the course of theprocesses had stopped. Examinations malinowki conducted on 91 human bodies from the contemporary Polish population.
Theresearch points to a very close relationship between the length of a dead body and the measured greatest length of the femur. Thisrelationship was expressed in nine coefficients of correlation calculated for both sexes. Stature estimation; Identification; Forensic anthropology; Length of malunowski femur1.
Introduction examined by Rollet . Jan Sehn Institute ofAbstractThe study aims to establish the relationship between boundertaking these examinations was the lack in the literaturethe basis of measurementsmurmolinskic, Tomasz Gosaansk, Curie Skodowskiej 3a, Gdansk, Polandeaching-Services Centre, Gdynia, Polandsic Research in Cracov, Polandeight and the greatest length antropolgoia the femur. The motive fordies that allow with reference to the current population ofwww.
InTelkkarecognizingthe necessity of applying differing formulae to differentpopulations in order to reconstruct height, proposed newmodels for the population of Northern Europe and, con-cretely, for the Finns that had been the subject of his research.
The estimation of stature on the basis of measurements of the femur
He was the first researcher to introduce into hiscalculations corrections resulting from the differences hehad observed between the length of bones on the right andleft sides of the body. InDupertuis and Haddenpublished their study, which also took into considerationblack individuals .
These authors method, however,turned out to be rather useless: Some of the best studies of the reconstruction of bodylength while alive are those of Trotter and Gleser from to [12,13]. In the first stage of their research ,these authors had at their disposal the remains mallinowski black andwhite American soldiers who had died during World War II. Body length had been measured while the subjectswere alive; bones taken from the remains were macerated.
The authors of the study established that, beginning from histhirtieth year, the height of a human being lessens each yearby 0.
Trotter and Gleser conductedsimilar research based on the quantitatively large amount ofbone material from the dead of the Korean War, whobelonged to varying ethnic groups: The authorsdemonstrated significant differences in height-limb propor-tions between the materials from both studies, pointing to thenecessity of periodic verification of the equations that serveto reconstruct height.
They also introduced separate modelsto reconstruct the height of members of each of the ethnicgroups investigated. In their studiesTrotter andGleser presented a sequence of formulae for the reconstruc-tion of height while alive, among which the formula relatingto the combined length of the femur and tibia permits theestablishment of the height while alive of a White personwith a margin of error of 2.
In Germany in, Lorke et al. InFully, after examiningmaterial collected during exhumation of remains on thesites of the former concentration camps, Mauthausen andGusen, insisted that in order to obtain actual individualheight of a skeleton, it is necessary to add Alimitation, however, on the widespread application of themethod of reconstruction proposed by Fully was the neces-sity of possessing a complete skeleton .
InFully together with Pineau made changes in thismethod .
The estimation of stature on the basis of measurements of the femur
In cases where only a stzako vertebral columnwas available, these changes related to strzakl thepercentage of the length of the whole vertebral columnmade up by the height of individual vertebrae.
They intro-duced into their method modified formulae that permittedthe reconstruction of the length of the body with an accuracyof 2. In the USSR, in the late s, and earlys, Nainis investigated the question of the reconstructionof the length of the body while alive . The next majorstudy concerning the forensic identification of humanremains was that of Hunger and Leopold, published inGermany in . These authors took measurementsof long bones belonging to preserved remains, designated tobe anatomical specimens.
They confirmed results up to thenon the sexual differentiation of the relation between thelength of bones and height. Inin the USA, Krogmanand Iscans extensive study appeared, which dealt with theforensic examinations of the human skeleton and strzaki a detailed description of methods of reconstruc-tion applied up to then .
Among the most recent studiesrelating to the reconstruction of height, Pennings workpublished in deserves attention . He sntropologia remains of persons from among the inhabitants ofGermany; he measured the length of long malinodski in X-rayphotographs. Penning came to the following conclusions: In Poland, the issue of thereconstruction of height while alive has been dealt withinstudies by, inter alia, Strzako  and Modziejowski .
In spite of almost years of research into the recon-struction of height from bone measurements, no method hasbeen developed that fully satisfies forensic doctors andanthropologists. In specialist literature, there are no studiesthat permit the establishment of body length when alive forthe contemporary population on the basis of measurementstaken from a skeleton. When attempting to identify unknownhuman remains, specialists are forced to use studies pre-senting methods that are of little use today, often possessingonly historical etrzako [19,].
These models appear allthe more out-of-date when the so-called secular trend atendency for changes is taken into consideration, i.
If these out-of-date methods are applied, they may be the source of seriouserrors in estimating human height while alive. Materials and methodsExaminations were conducted on antropklogia human bodies fromthe current Polish population, undergoing forensic examina-tion.
Antfopologia were chosen that were subject to rigor mortis,without obvious bodily deformation, and with clearlyformed features of skeletal maturity.
As a consequence ofthe possibility, in the case of women, of the easy visibility ofthe bodies state after the removal of bones, the number ofindividuals of the female sex examinedout of considera-tion for the families of the deceasedhad to be limited. Thestraightened at the joints.
The Achilles tendon was cutthrough on both sides. One of the squares was placed so that the amlinowski edge of itsshorter side lay on the surface of the dissecting table; theinner edge of the longer side touched the vertex point at thetop of the head. The square was stabilized. The surface of thefeet was placed on one of the surfaces of the polyethyleneblock lying on the table.
The block was stabilized. Thesecond square was placed on the table in a similar way to thefirst; in this case, the inner edge of its longer side ran alongthe surface of the block touching the feet.
By means of the measuring tape, with the parti-cipation of two people, the distance between the inner edgesof the squares was measured. The femurs on both sides were exposed by means of alongitudinal incision and they were removed from the softtissue.
The femur was separated at the knee joint from shankbone. The head of the femur was enucleated from the3. Device for measuring long bonesan osteometer spe-cially devised, permitting measurements with a precision of0. Two steel squares with 40 and 60 cm sides producer: Steel measuring tape3 m in length with mm divisions producer: Polyethylene blockrectangular, dimensions 40 cm 40 cm 40 cm.
The naked bodies were placed on their backs on the flatsteel surface of the dissecting table. This relationship was expressed in ninecoefficients of correlation calculated for both sexes. Theirvalue malinowzki the case of male femurs was greater. For thegreatest length of femurs; equations of regression to calculate heightrab Formula Sab0. Soft tissue was removed fromthe bone without disturbing the joint cartilage. According to Martins criteria, the greatest length of thefemur was measured ; in other words, the rectilineardistance between the top of the head and the furthest pointof the paracentral condyle .
Even the studies that are recognized as the mostR. This criticismapplies even more to malinowksi even older methods of Manouverier and Pearson , which are, however, still in general usein Poland.
The extension of the long bones, connected withthe constant growth and malknowski which lasts until theachievement of skeletal maturity of the simultaneouslyossifying basal cartilage, is conditioned by the definedproportions of the processes that take place in them: Inthe case of female femurs, the coefficients of correlationwere as follows: The highest coefficient of correlation 0.
All results are setout together in Tables DiscussionThe practical use of existing formulae for reconstructingTable 3Statistical characteristics of the length of male and female remainscalculate height while alive and standard deviations from the line oFeature x sLength of remains a These processesare subject to disturbance through the influence of a host amlinowski and endogenous factors that result in changes inlength and, in consequence, in the proportions of the body.
These factors are intrapopulation factors, interpopulationfactors, and intergenerational factors . This means that itis necessary to periodically malinowskki the models serving to fixheight while alive.
It also explains the lack of a universalmethod that could be applied in every case of establishingthe identity of unknown remains.
Trotter and Gleser have proved that intrapopulation changes in length affectingchanges in body proportions emerge in the course of arelatively short period of time .
It is necessary toconsider modified formulae that serve to fix height depend-ing on racial identity or on the constitutional type of build ofbody [30,31]. Strzqko the reconstructed height is, to a substantial degree, afunction of the method used . The data cited indicatesthat the reconstruction of body length from the long bones isonly, seemingly, a simple task.
In reality, the matter is muchmore complicated. In order to obtain results that are closestto height while alive, it is necessary to consider all theelements of the skeleton that determine height [15,20]. Inreality, this possibility only rarely occurs.
A large number of publications draw attention to theextension of the body that occurs after death.