Total Cronbach’s alpha was The BDD-YBOCS had excellent inter-rater ( intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] = ; p < ) and intra-rater reliability. The BDD-YBOCS is an observer rated scale to assess the severity of BDD The COPS is a self-report scale designed to screen for symptoms of BDD in. body dysmorphic disorder scale notes. The body dysmorphic disorder scale ( BDD-YBOCS) was developed by Katharine Phillips and colleagues (details at the .
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Intraclass correlation coefficients demonstrated excellent interrater and test-retest reliability; internal consistency was strong. At some point during the disorder, repetitive behaviors or mental acts are performed in response to the appearance preoccupations e. BDD is common, with a prevalence in the general population of 1.
Other BDD symptom measures have limitations. In the only previous study that examined the psychometric properties of the BDD-YBOCS, the scale had strong reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change in individuals who were seeking a clinical evaluation or treatment for BDD Phillips et al. In that study, the BDD-YBOCS demonstrated good interrater and test-retest reliability, internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, ybos sensitivity to change with pharmacologic treatment.
The sample is also more broadly ascertained, has a broader range of BDD severity, and includes adolescents, which may increase the generalizability of the findings to this age group, an understudied subgroup of individuals with BDD. Subjects were obtained from a prospective, observational study of the course of BDD, which is described in greater detail elsewhere e.
This report includes only data from the initial baseline interview which was obtained by subject interview. The only exclusion criterion was the presence of an organic mental disorder that would interfere with the collection of valid interview data.
Subjects were obtained from a broad range of sources: Of bfd subjects, met diagnostic criteria for current BDD, and 24 met criteria for past BDD at the time of intake into the study. Among the 38 subjects Because our observational course study did not prospectively re-interview subjects at weekly intervals or administer treatment, we used other BDD samples to examine test-retest reliability and sensitivity to change.
For analyses of sensitivity to change, 63 subjects were obtained from three studies of serotonin-reuptake inhibitors SRIs for BDD that are described elsewhere Phillips, ; Phillips et al.
One of these studies was placebo-controlled Phillips et al. Subjects in the treatment studies met standard inclusion and exclusion criteria for medication efficacy studies. The first five items assess obsessional preoccupations about perceived appearance defects time preoccupied, interference in functioning and distress due to perceived appearance defects, resistance against preoccupations, bdr control over preoccupations.
Items 6—10 assess BDD-related repetitive behaviors e. Item 11 assesses insight into appearance beliefs e. Scores for ybofs item range from 0 no symptoms to 4 extreme symptoms ; the total score ranges from 0 to 48, with higher scores reflecting more severe symptoms.
Diagnosis and Clinical Assessment in BDD – BDD
This scale was administered to the first 98 subjects in the observational course study we subsequently discontinued using it to decrease subject burden. Scores range from 0 to 72, with higher scores reflecting greater depressive symptom severity. Total scores range from 0 to 72; higher scores reflect more severe social anxiety symptoms.
Experienced clinical interviewers conducted interviews for the course study. Senior staff thoroughly edited all interviews both clinically and clerically. Intraclass correlation coefficients ICCs were used to examine interrater and test-retest reliability. To examine test-retest reliability, baseline ratings from the 64 subjects in the fluoxetine study were compared to ratings obtained by the same rater after one week of placebo run-in.
The number of factors identified was based on an examination of eigenvalues greater than one and the scree plot. To examine sensitivity to change, data from the three SRI studies were pooled, and pre-treatment and post-treatment total scores were compared using a paired-sample t test for the 63 subjects who received active medication.
Means and standard deviations for individual scale items are presented in Table 1. For individual items, interrater reliability ICCs ranged from 0. ICCs also showed good test-retest reliability over one week for the total score and all individual items Table 1.
Test-retest ICCs for individual item scores ranged from 0. The scree plot also suggested a two-factor solution. The two factors accounted for a total of One factor accounted for The other factor had factor loadings ranging from. The specificity was This cut score had a sensitivity of The relatively high correlation with the GAF is perhaps to be expected, given that BDD was the primary disorder for Correlations with the social phobia and depression measures were significant, perhaps reflecting the fact that In the prior report Phillips et al.
Study strengths include the relatively large sample size, broad ascertainment of subjects, and examination of numerous aspects of reliability and validity. Limitations include relatively small sample sizes for analyses of interrater and test-retest reliability. Interrater reliability ratings were based on audiotaped interviews conducted by only one rater, rather than separate interviews conducted by each rater; thus, these ratings provide an upper-bound estimate of reliability.
Further research is needed on the BDD-YBOCS to determine whether a self-report version of the scale is reliable and valid, which has not previously been investigated. More subjective items, such as level of distress, might be fairly accurately captured by a ndd measure.
Other items, however, such as functional impairment and avoidance due to BDD thoughts and repetitive behaviors, typically require careful clinical questioning bdv clinical judgment to accurately capture and score the broad range of behavioral consequences of this disorder.
The BDD-YBOCS yblcs strong internal consistency, interrater and test-retest reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and sensitivity to change. Two factors were identified, which accounted for This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final citable form.
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BDD | Scales used for BDDScales used for BDD – BDD
National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Author manuscript; available in PMC Jul Author ndd Copyright and License information Disclaimer. The publisher’s final edited version of this article is available at J Clin Psychiatry.
See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Body dysmorphic disorder, assessment, scales, measurement, severity.
Scales used for BDD
Open in a separate window. Scores are for the full sample past or current BDD. Conclusions The BDD-YBOCS demonstrated strong internal consistency, interrater and test-retest reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and sensitivity ybics change. References American Psychiatric Association. American Psychiatric Association; Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders DSM-5 5. American Psychiatric Publishing; Updates on the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder: Prevalence and clinical characteristics of body dysmorphic disorder in an adult inpatient setting.
The Brief Social Phobia Scale: New York State Psychiatric Institute; Development, use, and reliability.
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Suicidality in body dysmorphic disorder: American Journal of Psychiatry. Demographic characteristics, phenomenology, comorbidity, and family history in individuals with body dysmorphic disorder. A four-year prospective observational follow-up study of course and predictors of course in body dysmorphic disorder. Pharmacotherapy for body dysmorphic disorder: Treatment received and illness severity.
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