(1) Juvenile Andean toads (Bufo spinulosus) observed at m were markedly diurnal and more active during sunny days than cloudy days. (2) On a sunny. Reference for: Bufo spinulosus. Source: Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference, database (version 3). Acquired: Notes: Frost, Darrel R. Semiochemicals of Bufo spinulosus, the Andean toad Family: Bufonidae. Subfamily: Bufoninae. Genus: Bufo. Tribe: Author: Wiegmann.
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Revista Chilena de Historia Natural Assimilation efficiency in Bufo spinulosus tadpoles Anura: Results showed that geographic origin did not affect assimilation efficiency, while the relationship observed between temperature and diet quality was significant. Our results suggest that the effect of temperature on digestive processes is more relevant than its effect on transit time in the digestive tract.
The differences in size at metamorphosis in B spinulosus populations of distinct geographic origin could not be explained by the existence of differences in physiologic digestive capacities. Bufo spinulosustadpoles, assimilation, temperature effects, diet quality effects, geographic origin effects.
spinulksus Nuestros resultados sugieren que para B. Due to diets of highest nutritional quality generally produce an increase in the rates of growth and differentiation, it is assumed that the amount of energy and nutrients present in high quality foods would be better utilized by tadpoles.
However, the energy that an organism obtain from food is mainly dependent upon its digestion i. Assimilation efficiency reflects the capacity of an organism to metabolize the nutrients present in ingested food and is an important factor in its energy balance Calow Changes spinulosis assimilation efficiency have been described in ectotherms, allowing them to utilize different types of foods more efficiently HornBenavides el al.
Bufo spinulosus Wiegmann has an extended geographic distribution from the Peruvian-Bolivian highlands to the Chilean and Argentinean Andes Vellard These authors propose also that local abiotic conditions, especially water temperature, could explain the adults morphological divergence observed in individuals from the Tatio population, which represents an extreme in the morphological variation observed for this species. Concerning larval stages Benavides described that Bufo spinulosus tadpoles from different geographic localities, exposed in laboratory to identical photoperiod, temperature and diet conditions, reach to different sizes at metamorphosis.
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These results suggest that among populations of this species could be differences in some physiological attributes, and these differences possibly will determine the development and growth of the tadpoles and adults size in this species. Given the wide geographical distribution of B. Therefore, the inclusion of temperature in studies of dietary assimilation capacity is an important point, which up to date has spinuoosus scarcely explored.
We hypnotized that in B. We predict that tadpole feed with rich nutritional diet and growing at high temperature will show higher assimilation in comparison to tadpoles growing both a lower temperature and a nutritional quality diet. We also predict that will exist differences in assimilation among larval as a function of geographic precedence. Spinulpsus spinulosus larvae were collected from four localities from the northern and central zones of Chile: The larvae from El Tatio and Chita were directly xpinulosus during springwhile the larvae from Chusmiza and Farellones were obtained via artificial reproduction of individuals collected during spring Once the larvae reached a Gosner stage between 21 and 23 they were randomly placed at a density of 15 individuals mL -1in plastic containers of a 1 L capacity and a photoperiod of 12O: For each temperature treatment and locality of origin, three replicates were used for each of two diet soinulosus All containers bhfo checked every 24 h to guarantee the availability of food.
Behavioural thermoregulation of the Andean toad (Bufo spinulosus) at high altitudes.
Water in the containers was changed every 72 h and then the containers were randomly rearranged. After two weeks each group of tadpoles were transferred to a container with clean water without food. During the following 2 h, the feces produced by each group of tadpoles were collected with a Pasteur pipette. However, assuming that the absorption of ash is constant for all of the diets and the time remains in water was the same; this type of error is acceptable to determine the comparative assimilation efficiency.
The assimilation values for each treatment were calculated as an average of the percent assimilation obtained for each three samples and expressed as percent assimilation efficiency with a standard error. For the statistical analysis of the results, three-way ANOVAs were used with locality, temperature and diet as the predicting factors.
In order to satisfy the normality requirements of the data, the assimilation efficiency were transformed using: The Tukey test HSD was used to establish differences among samples. Before the experiments, the ash content of the two experimental diets was determined using the same procedure describe above, and the energy content kJ per dry ash weight was determined by combustion in a PARR bomb. The HQD presented lower ash content 6. Because it is possible that the assimilation values obtained in our experiment could be influenced by comparing individuals produced by artificial reproduction Chusmiza and Farellones with individuals collected directly from localities Tatio and Chusmizawe performed a test in which we compared assimilation values categorizing by two conditions: According that, the above conditions it seems no affect the response evaluated in our experiment.
Contrary to our predictions, the individuals from different geographic localities presented similar AE values for both experimental diets.
Table 1Fig. However, the AE of food was shown to be significantly affected by the environmental temperature, type of diet and by the interaction between temperature and diet Table 1Fig. In this analysis we detected a marginal interaction among locality, diet and temperature that could suggest that assimilation of both diet and temperature regimes could changes depending of locality considered. In order to explore this possibility this effect, we performed a comparison of estimated marginal means of this interaction by locality, considering temperature and diet.
Take account the above information, we discard locality as a relevant factor in order to explain assimilation differences observed among tadpoles. The AE values obtained for B.
These latter values spinuosus comparable to our results for B. The spirulina-based diet HQD could be considered to be the more artificial of the two used, in its high AE values are comparable to observed values in other species when artificial diets are used i.
Las barras de error corresponden al EE. Environmental temperature has traditionally been considered as one of the most relevant factors affecting the physiology of poikilotherms Rome et al. This pattern coincides with our results in B. This increase in assimilation performance due to the increase of temperature would cancel the negative effect that spinulosks decrease in transit time has on assimilation Elliot However, the digestibility of the HQD is not affected by temperature.
The efforts directed toward understanding and explaining the physiological diversity in animals has been concentrated in comparative studies between species from different habitats. However, very few studies have focused on the intraspecific variability at either the intra- or inter-individual levels.
Moreover, studies oriented toward understanding thermal acclimation at the population level are scarce Marquet el al. The possible geographic variation in the expression of attributes in amphibians, such as growth and its association with temperature, has only recently been included by some authors i.
Considering the geographic variation in the bufp physiology of other ectotherms i. However, our results do not support this hypothesis. Although buo is a lack of systematic studies on the larvae diet of this species, preliminary data from two localities Tatio and Farellones indicates that the larvae consume algae that are similar in total energy and total nitrogen content Benavides, unpublished data.
Therefore, if the larvae from different studied localities consume equivalent diets, it would be reasonable to assume that their digestive biochemical processes are similar Toloza a.
The results of the present study xpinulosus affected by the use of diets not regularly consumed by the tadpoles. However, both experimental diets utilized are similar in composition i.
Taking into consideration this, our results suggest that the physiological adjustments in the rates of sinulosus of the buf populations cannot be attributed to assimilation. Therefore, the explanations for the detected differences in size at metamorphosis of B. We are currently performing research in zpinulosus to elucidate the effects of geographic variation on life-history traits in this species.
The authors would also like to thank Dr. Pablo Sabat and three anonymous referees for their constructive suggestions to the former spinulosuw of this manuscript. Finally, we would like to give special thanks to Dr. Mario Rosenmann for his permanent friendship and help.
Advances in Ecological Research Society for Experimental Biology Seminar Series Bulletin of Marine Society Ediciones Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 96A: Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review Journal of Zoology London Journal of Comparative and Biochemical Physiology B: Environmental Biology of Fishes 5: International Journal of Spinuloaus and Analytical Chemistry Hughes RN ed Diet selection: Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Journal of Evolutionary Biology American Journal of Physiology International Review of Hydrobiology Received December 2, ; accepted March 1, RESULTS Because it is possible that the assimilation values obtained in our experiment could be influenced by comparing individuals produced by artificial reproduction Chusmiza and Farellones with individuals collected directly from localities Tatio and Chusmizawe performed a test in which we compared assimilation values categorizing by two conditions: Assimilation efficiency of Bufo spinulosus tadpoles vufo different geographic origin, maintained at two temperatures: Error bars correspond to SE.