A Loucura do trabalho: estudo de psicopatologia do trabalho. Front Cover. Christophe Dejours. Cortez, – pages. developed in the s by the French researcher Christophe Dejours. It has been .. A Loucura do Trabalho: estudo de Psicopatologia do Trabalho. 5ª ed. São. Mar 4, OF WORK: A VIEW ON CRISTOPHE. DEJOURS’ .. Dejours C. A loucura do trabalho: estudo de psicopatologia do trabalho. 5ª ed. São Paulo.
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The theme of this research is burnout at work in modern times. The main objective is to analyze aspects of mental health worker. The specific objectives are to evaluate the issue of health and mental illness in the workplace, to understand the field of psychodynamics of work, and to analyze the work and the mental strain. The methodology used is the literature review. We conclude that is not the hostile environment that directly causes burnout and other conditions, but the inability to deal with xejours powerlessness of the working conditions.
This study investigated the causal conditions and manifestations of the burnout syndrome at the workplace. Christolhe, it is possible to recognize the genesis of dejous public health issue trabalno burnout at work – that can lead to depression and psychological malaise.
Most legislations recognize stress and depression as occupational illnesses. However, it is necessary to prevent burnouts and suffering at work, before they become a pathology, which can be considered a generic problem with serious implications both at work and beyond. However, the sharing of professional values can engender sublimation as the primary factor ensuring pleasure at work, but this merely occurs through a collective construct that is guided by the predominant values of their backgrounds.
Teamwork for encountering challenges and possibilities in everyday situations will enable workers to surpass the differences in ,oucura backgrounds, resolve work conflicts, and overcome intra-psychological conflicts, thus leaving an open path for either resilience or depression. The specific aims were to evaluate the issues of mental health and mental illness at work, to understand the psychodynamics of work, and to analyze work and burnout.
The methodology used is literature review, through theoretical research of books and journals related to the theme. This theme, under various circumstances, has generated research studies which focus on the inception of the varieties of burnout among workers from the various fields of production.
According to Seligmann-Silva [ 1 ], this evolving feature of research, that is, work and mental health, is chrlstophe based on interdisciplinarity and attempts to integrate distinct views of the biological, human, and exact sciences.
These subjects are based on physiology, neurology, psychiatry christopphe psychosomatic medicine, and psychoanalysis [ 2 ]. For Ramazzini [ 3 ], other subjects study human work directly or indirectly not assuming health to be their formal object, as is the case with political economy. This characteristic is also observed in every subject that converges the work organization in its capitalist feature, as is the case of sociology and business management, which focus on company and production.
This implies that we have a previously constituted subjectivity that will be later exposed to the reality of work, which may occasion a transformation in our conducts when we are facing a conflict, or a transformation in the work reality may also occur through a supplementation of our subjectivities [ 1 ].
In the psychodynamics of work, mental illnesses are not the focus of christophhe, rather the behaviors and attitudes that indicate mental suffering and the struggle against mental illness are concentrated upon. According to Dejours and Abdoucheli [ 5 ], mental illness only makes sense for a particular individual when it is registered in the private domain. Work, with its social nature, absorbs workers from the social environment, registering itself in the collective domain.
Thus, when encountering identical work pressures, the consequences on mental functioning are not the same, for there is a private-social conflict, where it is observed that the private vigorously resists. For Codo and Jacques [ 6 ], between work pressures and mental illness, there is the individual, who is capable of understanding their situation, reacting and defending themselves.
In the psychodynamics of work, the conflict beyond the personality domain or its singular reactions is what is pursued, that is, in the concrete reality of organizational logic. In that way, workers build private defense reactions considering three functional variables: This is a contemporary tendency and may be verified in the recent studies on work and mental health. This is why the concept of burnout was chosen, based on the theoretical construct of Seligmann-Silva [ 1 ] and not on psychological suffering, as developed by Dejours [ 7 ].
Considered an evolution of the psychopathology of work, and therefore, also called the new psychopathology of work, this study is more oriented toward identifying specific mental illnesses correlated to the profession or to the work situations. Its field of investigation explores the participants who, despite the work pressures, are able to avoid illness and madness. Therefore, it studies the aspect that is unaffected by the mental pressures.
The psychodynamics of work first appeared in the studies by Christophe Dejours during the late s in France, having a strong impact on the views presented by the psychopathology of work. Its followers founded the Dejourian School, gathering various specialists and research fields.
Dejours [ 5 ] proposed a new appreciation of the concept of work-related mental load, which cannot be quantified, for it is qualitative and as an experience cannot be measured, such as pleasure, satisfaction, frustration, aggressiveness.
The concept of psychological load is related to the affective and relational aspects of work, and it is an economical approach to psychological functioning.
In that way, if the workers are not able to find a freely chosen or organized job, they will have their ways of unloading poorly adapted to their needs. Psychological energy will accumulate, becoming a source of tension and displeasure. In this case, the psychological load will be positive, otherwise, the psychological load will be negative, and the work will be considered as a balancing agent. In the psychodynamics of work approach, the primary concern is with the most comprehensive dynamics regarding inception and transformations of mental suffering linked to the work organization [ 1 ].
Through this view, the notion of suffering preliminarily implies a state of struggle of the participant against forces that are inclined toward mental illness, and those forces should be identified in the work organization [ 8 ]. The first analysis of suffering designates the field that separates illness from health. According to Ferreira [ 8 ], work organization is not only: Pathogenic suffering occurs when the work organization is in conflict with the psychological functioning of men and all the possibilities of adaptation between the work organization and desire collapse.
Then, as a form of mediation, for all this is a dynamic process, individuals create forms to protect themselves, developing defensive strategies. Therefore, in the psychodynamics of work, mental suffering is conceived through both aspects, that is, it can lead to either illness or creativity. In this sense, Pitta [ 10 ] states that: In the psychodynamics of work, the socio-historic perspective and the work organization are considered, using the psychoanalytical reference integrated into a dialectic vision.
In those studies, psychoanalytical concepts have served as a support to their theoretical construct for the purpose of analyzing mental suffering associated with work and the genesis of that suffering. The notions of mental suffering and pleasure associated with work, used in psychodynamics of work, are related to anguish and desire, both studied in psychoanalysis. In the development of psychodynamics of work, Dejours [ 7 ] also applies the concepts formulated by Pierre Marty that investigate psychosomatic economy, also anchored on the psychoanalytical reference.
Through that approach, the correlation of processes and work-conflicts can often be established by psychosomatic disorders.
However, Dejours [ 7 ] exemplifies how people present different levels of psychosensory demands, such as the need for varied work, according to their personality needs.
In this sense, he says: Thus, some people need strong psychosensory demands. The more changes, varied sounds, loud music, less monotony, and routine, the better they feel. When they are deprived of that, they become unbalanced, developing a somatic disease. These factors constitute work as a balancing agent to the structure of a personality. In this situation, the psychological load is negative, it is part of the pleasure at work and it counterbalances, in part, physical and nervous loads, to the point that it assures these workers a balance.
Currently, in addition to profit, which is the primary objective of a company, what characterizes it is the profile adopted by the organization, planning, and management. Their concern is not as much related to the promotion of direction and planning, for they have always occupied an important place.
According to the economicism prevalent in the analyses of neoliberal theses, the future belongs to the industries.
This idea seeks to deny the centrality of work, even if in the current socio-economic context people still work more, the real duration of work increases, and the work force is increasingly outsourced, among other things. Work here is understood as a general and homogeneous reality, a social relationship, a mode of using the work force.
The statute or role in which are gathered the particular function fulfilled by the individual in the company, the form of his task, the qualification that is acknowledged in him, and the privileges that are given or refused to him are empirical aggregates, resulting from the social functioning of the isolated company.
These are notions that cannot be confused with the notion of work in the broad sense [ 12 ]. According to Ferreira [ 8 ], the system of relationships that consequently exist in a company, in essence, is not within the workplace, but determines it.
The meaning of work is much more than the mere execution of tasks in the system of relationships within the company, but it permeates the ambit of family and society. This is the meaning that is obliterated by neoliberalism.
In this way, the work organization, mediating the system of relationships between social actors, possesses a centrality in the determination of the causal conditions and manifestations of burnout, reaching its psychological dimension. According to these authors, the work organization is the division of tasks among the team, the imposed rhythms, the operational modes demanded to execute the labor activities, and the division between its participants to guarantee the sharing of tasks and responsibilities, which is represented by the managers, through the control systems they exercise.
It is a socially constructed relationship.
DIVISÃO CAPITALISTA DO TRABALHO
Leopardi [ 13 ], referring to the questions related to work, says that in the conceptions dk its development viewed from the political-economic perspective, people are perceived as mere objects, whose value depends on the variation of a certain currency in the payment to a work force.
In this way, we can perceive the current conformity of work organization as a social relationship in our world. Thus, for So Filho [ 15 ], the hierarchy, and the division of tasks and people are considered essential initial factors to understand the work organization.
In these factors, there is a fundamental articulation between the work process, the form of administrating this process, and mental health. Pressures within this loucuta are derived from the work organization.
The psychological load is, therefore, the christopje of a confrontation between desire christophee the orders of their superiors [ 4 ]. In this sense, Marx [ 17 ] underscores that the work becomes something external to the worker, not q to his nature and not constituting the satisfaction of a need: This study presented the theoretical fundamentals involving the issue of burnout at work.
In the psychodynamics of work of the Dejourian School, it was possible to apprehend the object of the study through the conflicts evident in work situations, making it possible to understand the work organization as an intrinsic factor in the constitution of the burnout syndrome.
The theoretical construct of Seligmann-Silva enabled the use of the concept of burnout associated with the sense of loss, thus expanding its conception. In this sense, every loss engenders burnout. Since it does not affect productivity, burnout is not valued, for after all, individuals continue to work, even under cchristophe working conditions.
Considering all the conditions for workers to perform their activities, the burnout experienced at work has weakened individuals. Their capacity for affective mobilization is dulled, thus they cannot overcome the perception of impotence in face of the conflicts related to the work organization.
National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. J Clin Med Res. Published online Aug Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Accepted Jul CopyrightNeves Pinheiro da Costa et al.
This is christoophe open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The theme of this research is burnout at work in modern times.
Introduction This study investigated the causal conditions and manifestations of the burnout syndrome at the workplace. Psychodynamics of Work Considered an evolution of louucra psychopathology of work, trabakho therefore, also called the new psychopathology of work, this study is more oriented toward identifying specific mental illnesses correlated to the profession or to the work situations.
Conclusion This study presented the theoretical fundamentals involving the issue of burnout at work. Da Psicopatologia a Psicodinamica do Trabalho: Medicina basica do trabalho.