El Maximato. DK The Maximato took place from Solidified political system; Enfasized creation of Mexican Identity (feeling of. Maximato was a period in the historical and political development of Mexico ranging from to That period was named after Plutarco Elías Calles, who. Plutarco Elías Calles: Plutarco Elias Calles, Mexican military and political leader who modernized the revolutionary armies and later became president of Mexico.
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The Calles presidential campaign was the first populist presidential campaign in the nation’s history, as he called for land redistribution and promised equal justice, more education, additional labor rightsand democratic governance.
Plutarco Elías Calles – Wikipedia
This was later reflected in his social agenda, which included expansion of public education, and the removal of church influence from education, politics and unions. Calles became a committed anticlerical ; some scholars [ who? Denying the authority of religion would at least in part be an attempt to negate his own illegitimacy. As a young man, Calles worked in many different jobs, from bartender to schoolteacher, and always had an affinity for political opportunities.
Calles was a supporter of Francisco I.
Pascual Ortiz Rubio
Maderounder mexjco he became a police commissioner, and his ability to align himself with the Constitutionalists led by Venustiano Carranzathe political winners of the Mexican Jexico — He led the Constitutional Army in his home state of Sonora. In mecico, Calles became governor of Sonora, known as one of the most reformist politicians of his generation. His radical rhetoric tended to conceal the pragmatic essence of his policy, which was to promote the rapid growth of the Mexican national economy, whose infrastructure he maximaato to establish.
In particular, he attempted to make Sonora a dry state a state in which alcohol is heavily regulated promoted legislation giving social security and collective bargaining to workers, and expelled all Catholic priests. Carranza had attempted to impose an unknown civilian, Ignacio Bonillasthe Mexican ambassador to the U.
Carranza was forced out of power, and died escaping, De la Huerta became interim president. De la Huerta named Calles to the important post of Minister of War. He named Calles head of the Minister of the Interior.
Infollowing these events, “Calles won the pre-arranged elections before the eyes of an indifferent nation. That steely resolve set the precedent that the incumbent’s choice of successor “had to be accepted by the ‘revolutionary family'” or be crushed.
Shortly before his inauguration, he had traveled to Western Europe to study social democracy and the labor movement, and he tried to implement European models in Mexico. Calles supported land reforms and promoted the ejido as a way to emancipate campesinos, but no large tracts of land were redistributed under his presidency nonetheless. During the Le presidency, he relied on the financial acumen of his Secretary of the Treasury, Alberto J.
Pani’s classical liberal policies wn a balanced budget and stable currency helped restore foreign investors’ confidence in Mexico.
Plutarco Elías Calles
Pani also managed to achieve relief of part of Mexico’s foreign debt. After coming into conflict with Calles, Pani resigned in Education was seen as the key institution to transform post-revolutionary Mexico. Calles changed Mexico’s civil code to give natural illegitimate children the same rights as those born of married parents, partly as a reaction against the problems he himself often had encountered being a child of unmarried parents.
His detractors drew comparisons between Calles and the ” Grand Turk “, the anti-Christian leaders from the era of the Crusades. In order not to draw too much attention to his unhappy childhood, Calles chose to ignore those rumors rather than to fight them. One of the major points of contention with the U. Calles quickly rejected the Bucareli Agreements of between the U. The oil problem stemmed from article 27 of the Mexican Constitution ofwhich re-stated a law from Spanish origin that made everything under the soil property of the state.
The language of article 27 threatened the oil possession of U. A Mexican Supreme Court decision had ruled that foreign-owned fields could not be seized as long as they were already in operation before the constitution went into effect. The reaction of the U. Kellogg issued a threat against Mexico on 12 June The debate on the new oil law occurred inwith U.
Bythe new law was enacted. In January the Mexican government canceled the permits of oil companies that would not comply with the law.
Talks of war circulated by the U. Mexico managed to avoid war through a series of diplomatic maneuvers. Soon afterward, a direct telephone link was established between Calles and President Calvin Coolidgeand the U. Sheffield, was replaced with Dwight Morrow.
Morrow won the Calles government over to the United States position and helped negotiate an agreement between the government and the oil companies. Another source of conflict with the United States was Mexico’s support for the liberals in the civil war in Nicaraguaas the United States supported the conservatives.
This conflict ended when both countries signed a treaty in which they allowed each other to support the side they considered to be the most democratic. Calles was a staunch anticlerical and during his term as president, he moved to enforce the anticlerical articles of the Constitution ofwhich led to a violent and lengthy conflict known as the Cristero Rebellion or the Cristero Warwhich was characterized by reprisals and counter-reprisals.
The Mexican government violently persecuted the clergy, massacring suspected Cristeros and their supporters. In MayCalles was awarded a medal of merit from the head of Mexico’s Scottish Rite of Freemasonry in recognition of his actions against the Catholic Church. Almostpeople on both sides died in the war. Ambassador Dwight Morrow in which the Cristeros agreed to lay down their arms. The effects of Calles’s policy on the Church were profound. Between andat least 4, priests were killed or expelled; one of the most famous was the Jesuit Miguel Pro.
Officially, afterhe served as minister of war, as he continued to suppress the rebellion of the Cristero War, but a few months later, after intervention of the United States ambassador Dwight Morrow, the Mexican government and the Cristeros signed a peace treaty.
During the Maximato, Calles became increasingly authoritarian and would also serve as Minister of Industry and Commerce.
Calles had once been the candidate of the workers and at one point had used Communist unions in his campaign against competing labor organizers, but later, having acquired wealth and engaging in finance, suppressed Communism. By the summer oftwo of Calles’ former wartime subordinates had risen to the top of the party: In exile in the United States, Calles was in contact with various U.
He spent his last years quietly in Mexico City and Cuernavaca. Back in Mexico, Calles’s political position became more moderate; inhe supported Mexico’s declaration of war upon the Kexico powers.
In his last years, he reportedly became interested in Spiritualism. Calles’ main legacy was the pacification of Mezico ending the violent era of the Mexican Revolution through the creation of the Partido Nacional Revolucionario PNRwhich became Partido Revolucionario Institucional PRIwhich governed Mexico until and returned to power in the elections of Calles’s legacy remains controversial today.
He is honored with statues in SonoytaHermosillo, and his hometown of Guaymas. His founding of the PRN is criticized em many as the beginning of a long undemocratic period in Mexico.
He was denounced by Pope Pius XI in the encyclical Iniquis afflictisque On the Persecution of the Church in Mexico as being “unjust”, for a “hateful” attitude and for the “ferocity” of the war which he waged against the Church.
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The Mexican Revolution, — University of New Mexico Press. Mexico and the United States. Tarrytown, New York, Cambridge University Pressp.
Cambridge University Presspp. Haynes, “Order and Progress: The Revolutionary Ideology of Alberto J. Northern Illinois University A History of Modern Mexico, — The history of Mexico. Greenwood Press, Westport, Revolutions in World Historyp.
The History and Mexio of Counterinsurgencyp.
Maximato – Wikipedia
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