Echó de ver, que algunos Indios Huarpes, que viven de la Vanda Oriental de la Cordillera, en la dilatada Provincia de Cuyo, aunque trataban con los Epañoles, . diaguitas, los omaguacas, los atacamas, los comechingones y los huarpes. EN , INVADIENDO Y MATANDO A NUESTROS INDIOS. Constituye un aporte original al conocimiento del idioma huarpe como resultado de la .. El traslado de los indios huarpes a Chile fue en tal proporción que.

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There is a persistent rumour that the hallucinogenic effects of nutmeg are employed by natives in parts of southeast Asia, but little supporting indos has been found. They prepare this powder from certain pods of the yupa Revista de estudios literarios. Recent literature and maps showing the distribution of snuffs made presumably from Anadenanthera include the entire Orinoco basin and adjacent areas of southern Venezuela hkarpes the east; westward across the northern Colombian Andes, much of the Magdalena Valley; down the Andes through Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia; the coastal region of Peru; scattered isolated areas in northern Argentina and the central and western Amazon Valley.

The seeds of some species of Erythrina resemble the mescal bean Sophora secundiflora which has a long history of use as a narcotic in the American Southwest and northern Mexico. Over the millenia, man has selected, subconsciously at first, consciously in more recent times, “races” or “strains” of this cultigen with desirable characteristics for the purposes at hand: Other species are likewise prized as condiments and medicinally as agents effectively hastening the healing of wounds and burns.

An ethnobotanically and pharmacologically most interesting practice is the reported mixing in a narcotic drink of peyote and mescal beans amongst the Comanche, Oto and Tonkawa. Modern taxonomists, consequently, are in agreement with Linnaeus who, inrecognized only one species. Although the narcotic use of Cannabis harks back thousands of years in India, the Near East, parts of Africa and other areas of the Old World, its spread to nearly all inhabited parts of the globe has allowed its employment as an inebriant recently to increase in sophisticated societies, especially in urban areas, and to lead to major problems and dilemmas to European and American authorities.

It is apparently in India where Cannabis assumes an extraordinary religious significance in certain cults and where, as a result, man has selected “races” characterized by high concentrations of tetrahydrocannabinol. Nevertheless, a number of binomials have been legitimately published as deserving nomenclatorial recognition. Safford later pointed out the use of Anadenanthera peregrina in preparing the narcotic yopo-snuff of the Orinoco, still much employed, and established its identity with the ancient cohoba of the West Indies.


Shortly after eight, I lay down in my hammock, overcome with drowsiness, which, however, seemed to be accompanied by a muscular excitation except in the hands and feet. In Latin America, the indigenous communities conquered by the Spanish react to the cultural and emotional impact by interpreting the new spiritual elements imposed by the conquerors.

The earliest scientific report on this narcotic appears to be that of Alexander yon Humboldt who botanically identified the plant as Acacia Niopostating that the Maypure Indians of the Orinoco break the long pods of this tree, moisten them and allow them to ferment; after they turn black, the softened beans are kneaded into small cakes with Manihot- flour and lime from snail shells. Amongst many Indian tribes of the northwest Amazon and uppermost Orinoco, a highly intoxicating snuff is prepared from another myristicaceous source: Pancraetiuma genus of some 15 species in the warmer parts mainly of tropical Asia and Africa, possesses powerfully toxic principles, including alkaloids.

Mentioning hallucinogenic effects, he explained that, after tribal councils, the chief prays and “tells the vision that he has seen, intoxicated with the cogioba which goes up to his head Many reports ascribe the sources of Amazon snuffs to various leguminous trees, and the British botanist Bentham’s concluded that “all South American trees There are many parallels and similarities between certain aspects of the modern peyote cult and the Red Bean Dance, and both obviously had a southern origin because of the natural distribution of the plants involved.

Even in what should be the basic study of this plant – the botanical field – we find disagreement as to its classification.

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Pancraetium maritimum and other species are cardiac poisons, and P. The Stephen Long Expedition in reported the Arapaho and Iowa using large red beans as a medicine indiox narcotic. Necklace of beans of Sophora secundiflora used by leader of Kiowa Indian peyote ceremony, Anadarko, Oklahoma. Sophora secundiflora Sophora secundiflora is a beautiful shrub – often planted as an ornamental in Texas – with leathery, evergreen leaflets harpes large inflorescences of violet or violet-blue flowers and woody legumes containing usually three or four beans.

Inasmuch as Cannabis represents one of the hallucinogens most widely recognized – even though very imperfectly understood – in modern times, I have resolved to present this obviously brief and superficial discussion and to concentrate on many of the more poorly known or even unknown psychotomimetics utilized in distant and isolated regions by peoples seldom in the attention of the mainstream of uuarpes.

In Oaxaca, Mexico, a number of species of Rhynchosiaespecially R.


There is, apparently, no huarpws of the hallucinogenic use of Genista canariensis in the Old World. Howsoever weak and circumstantial the evidence that vilca and cebil were prepared from Anadenantherathere would seem to be no phytochemical reason why this might not be so.

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Virola -snuff was first described in detail and identified as to species in from ethnobotanical field studies in Amazonian Colombia. An unidentified alkaloid has been isolated from seeds of Rhynchosia pyramidalis.

Ganjahusually smoked with tobacco but sometimes eaten or drunk as an infusion, consists of dried pistillate tops with exuded resin carefully gathered from cultivated or escaped “races” notably rich in tetrahydrocannabinol.

Methods of using Cannabis vary widely. The first definite association of a snuff with Virola was made in by the Brazilian botanist Ducke, who wrote that the “Indians of the upper Rio Negro use the dried leaves of this species [ Virola theiodora ] and of V.

Because of the great variation in chemical composition of crude Cannabis preparations normally employed as narcotics, any correlation of biological activity, if possible at all, would be, for all practical purposes, meaningless. In parts of primitive Africa, Cannabis fulfills an important role in religion and magic. Los ancianos decidieron cambiar de lugar, pero adondequiera que fueran, la serpiente los encontraba.

The plant kingdom and hallucinogens (part II)

Unfortunately, no direct evidence connects the Hottentot kanna with Mesembryanthemumand Lewin, doubting that these aizoaceous plants could produce the effects described, suggests that the narcotic in question must have been Cannabis sativato which the Hottentots were very habituated.

An alkaloid was isolated from the bark of the roots in and named nigerine, but recent chemical studies have established the identity of nigerine with N, N-dimethyltryptamine, the same hallucinogenic constituent isolated from the seeds of the related Anadenanthera peregrina.

Alianza Universidad Textos, Madrid. Vague information has indicated that possibly a member of the Ginger family, Kaempferia Galangamay be employed by natives in several parts of New Guinea as an hallucinogen. It must be recognized that this problem has arisen because of a confusion of concepts: Although the marked increase in smoking marihuana in the United States poses a variety of problems, much of the drug illicitly used at the present time in the country is weak in the narcotic principles, since it consists not of pure resin but of crushed leaves, twigs and tops of plants notably low in tetrahydrocannabinol.

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