KITIN DAN KITOSAN PDF

The preliminary research included chitin flour production. Later on, production and characterization of chitin and chitosan. Characteriztics of. April 1, Journal article Open Access. Karakteristik Kitin dan Kitosan Udang Swallo (Metapenaeus monoceros). Suprianto. The preliminary. Satu lagi perbezaan antara kitin jati dan komposit boleh dilihat dengan membandingkan dinding Kitosan dihasilkan daripada kitin secara pendeasetilan.

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CO- pada struktur polimernya. Kitosan merupakan senyawa kimia yang berasal dari bahan hayati kitin, suatu senyawa organik yang melimpah di alam ini setelah selulosa. Kitin ini umumnya diperoleh dari kerangka hewan invertebrata dari kelompok Arthopoda sp, Molusca sp, Coelenterata sp, Annelida sp, Nematoda sp, dan beberapa dari kelompok jamur.

Selain dari kerangka hewan invertebrate, juga banyak ditemukan pada bagian insang ikan, trachea, dinding usus dan pada kulit cumi-cumi.

Karakteristik Kitin dan Kitosan Udang Swallo (Metapenaeus monoceros)

Sebagai sumber utamanya ialah cangkang Crustaceae sp, yaitu udang, lobster, kepiting, dan hewan yang bercangkang lainnya, terutama asal laut. Sumber ini diutamakan karena bertujuan untuk memberdayakan limbah udang. Kitosan mempunyai sifat antimikrobia melawan jamur lebih kuat dari kitin. Jika kitosan ditambahkan pada tanah, maka akan menstimulir pertumbuhan mikrobia mikrobia yang dapat mengurai jamur.

Selain itu kitosan juga dapat disemprotkan langsung pada tanaman.

Sifat kitin dan kitosan dapat mengikat air dan lemak. Karena sifatnya yang dapat bereaksi dengan asam-asam seperti polifenol, maka kitosan sangat cocok untuk menurunkan kadar asam pada buah-buahan, sayuran dan ekstrak kopi.

Agro-Kitosan: Apa Itu Kitosan

Kitosan mempunyai sifat polikationik, sehingga dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai agensia penggumpal. Chitosan is produced commercially by deacetylation of chitinwhich is the structural element in the exoskeleton of crustaceans crabs.

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Chitosan is produced commercially by deacetylation of chitinwhich is the structural element in the exoskeleton of crustaceans crabs, shrimp, etc. This makes chitosan a bioadhesive which readily binds to negatively charged surfaces such as mucosal membranes. Chitosan enhances the transport of polar drugs across epithelial surfaces, and is biocompatible and biodegradable. Purified qualities of chitosans are available for biomedical applications.

Chitosan and its derivatives such as trimethylchitosan where the amino group has been trimethylated have been used in non-viral gene delivery.

Oligomeric derivatives kDa are relatively non-toxic and have good gene delivery properties. In agriculturechitosan is used primarily as a natural seed treatment and plant growth enhancer, and as a ecologically friendly biopesticide substance that boosts the innate ability of plants to defend themselves against fungal infections.

It is one of the most abundant bio-gradable materials in the world.

EPA approved bio-degradable chitosan products are allowed for use outdoors and indoors on plants and crops grown commercially and by consumers. The natural biocontrol ability of chitosan should not be confused with the effects of fertilizers or pesticides upon plants kitij the environment.

Chitosan active biopesticides represent a new tier of cost effective biological control of crops for agriculture and horticulture. The biocontrol mode of action of chitosan elicits natural innate defense responses within plant to resist against insects, pathogens, and soil borne diseases when applied to foliage or the soil.

Chitosan increases photosynthesis, promotes and enhances plant growth, stimulates nutrient uptake, increases germination and sprouting, and boosts plant vigor. When used as seed treatment or seed coating on cotton, corn, seed potatoes, soybean, sugar beet, tomato, wheat and many other seeds it elicits an innate immunity response in developing roots which destroy parasitic cyst nematodes without harming beneficial nematodes and organisms.

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Agricultural applications of chitosan can reduce environmental stress due to drought and soil deficiencies, strengthen seed vitality, improve stand quality, increase yields, and reduce fruit decay of vegetables, fruits and citrus crops see photo right.

Horticultural applications of chitosan increases blooms, extends the life of cut flowers and Christmas trees.

The US Forest Service has conducted research on chitosan to control pathogens in pine trees. Chitosan has a rich history of being researched for applications in agriculture and horticulture dating back to the s. By Bentech Labs patented chitosan salt solutions applied to crops for improved freeze protection or to crop seed for seed priming. Shortly thereafter Bentech’s chitosan salt received the first ever biopesticide label from the EPA. Numerous other chitosan patents for plants soon followed.

Chitosan applications to protect plants have been used in space as well. NASA first flew a chitosan experiment to protect adzuki beans grown aboard the space shuttle and Mir space station in see photo left. NASA results revealed chitosan induces increased growth biomass and pathogen resistance due to elevated levels of beta glucanase enzymes within plant cells.

NASA confirmed chitosan elicits the same effect in plants on earth. Yield Enhancing Agent, a liquid solution containing an ultra low molecular active ingredient of 0.

A milliliter of YEA! Given its low potential for toxicity and its abundance in the natural environment, chitosan does not harm people, pets, wildlife, or the environment when used according to label directions.

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