Few political terms have such a hazy and imprecise definition in popular discourse as “Zionism.” In part, this is due to the political agenda. Auto-Emancipation has 4 ratings and 0 reviews. A literature on the psychosis of Jew-hatred. Leon Pinsker: Auto-emancipation and self-help In September , a pamphlet entitled “Auto-emancipation! An appeal to his people by a Russian Jew ”.
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Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Leo Pins- ker, published in Berlin inis one of the canonical writings of Zionism. These publications are fundamental documents of the modern Jewish Nation- al Movement and represent three stages of its develop- ment. Hess was the first to set out the theory and the line of action which the movement was to take emancipatin Pinsker called for a territorial solution of the Jewish Question, which led to the Kattowitz Conference of the Choveve Zion in ; Herzl convened in the First Zionist Congress, which formulated the Basle Programme for the establishment for the Jewish people of a Home in Palestine secured by public law.
After graduating from the Moscow University, he set- tled in Odessa, where he attained a high standing in the medical profession. It is significant that Pinsker, like Hess and Herzl, arrived at a “national” solution of the Jewish Question in an “assimilated” environment.
Punsker had been associated with the efforts at Russi-] fication of auro Jews which was carried on by the society for the Spread of Culture among the Russian Jews, of which he was one of the founders. He gradually, how- i ever revised his Jewish emancioation, and endeavoured, though unsuccessfully, to persuade influential Jewish circles in Vienna, Lel and London emancipatiln the Jewish Question could only be solved by the creation of a Jewish territ- orial centre.
It was the anti-Jewish policy of the Russian Government with pogroms as the most striking manifestation of popular Jew-hatred that led Pinsker like many other of his compatriots, not only to search- ings of the heart but to emancipatin definite change of attitude regarding the destiny of the Jewish people. In Auto- Emancipation, Pinsker diagnosed the Jewish problem and set out his emsncipation on a “territorial” basis. Pinsker like Herzl came to the realization of the importance of Palestine as autto centre of Jewish life only afterwards.
He published in his pamphlet in German under the pen-name of “A Russian Jew,” but the course of events led him to associate himself prominently with the first international assembly of the Choveve Zion at the Kattowitz Conference in ; and, largely at his le, there was established in Russia the Society for the Support of Jewish Agriculturists and Handi- craftsmen in Syria and Palestine the so-called Odessa Committeeof which he was the president from its foundation to the year Leon Simon, and appears in his Zionism and Judaism pp.
The article was written in’ and bears the stamp of the then prevailing controversy between “spiritual and politi- cal” Zionism. Since those days a generation has passed, and Zionists are now confronted by problems for which neither Pinsker nor Herzl could offer a solution.
Happily, we are not called upon with Ahad Ha am to adjudge the relative merits of those two prophets of Jewish Nationalism. It was the unique distinction of Leo Pinsker that, amidst the turmoil of the Russian pogroms that had set the Jewish world into a panic, he stood aauto.
It was the true greatness of Theodor Herzl that he not only wrote the Judc nst cat but that, through the Zionist Organiza- tion founded by him, Pinsker’s Auto-Emancipation passed from the quality of literature into a vital force in the national resurrection of the Jewish people. This issue of Auto-Emancipation is based on the second edition of the English translation by Dr. Blondheim, published by the Federation of American Zionists in It was prepared for the press, autl titles added, and translation revised by Mr.
Arthur Saul Super, b.
THE misery caused by bloody deeds of violence has been followed by a moment of repose, and baiter and baited can breathe easier for a time. Mean- while the Jewish refugees are being “repatriated’ 9 with the very money that was collected to assist emigra- tion. The Jews in the West have again learned to endure the cry of “Hep, Hep” as their fathers did in days gone by. The flaming outburst of burning indig- nation at the disgrace endured has turned into a rain of ashes which is gradually covering the glowing soil.
Close your eyes and hide your heads ostrich-fashion as you will; if you do not take advantage of the fleeting moments of repose, and devise remedies more funda- mental than those palliatives with which the incompet- ent have for centuries vainly tried to relieve our unhappy nation, lasting peace is impossible for you.
Yhe eternal problem presented by the Jew- ment of Q ues tion stirs men to-day as it did ages Jewish a g a j t remains unsolved, like the squar- Problem. This is due to the fact that it is not merely a problem of theoretic interest, but one of prac- tical interest, which renews its youth from day to day, as it were, and presses more and more imperatively for a solution.
Auto-Emancipation | work by Pinsker |
Hence the eemancipation is to find means of so adjusting the relations of this exclusive element to the whole body of the nations that there shall never be any further basis for the Jewish Question. We cannot, of course, think of establishing per- fect harmony. Such harmony has probably never ex- isted, even among other nations. The millenium in which the “International” will disappear, and the na- tions will merge into humanity, is still invisible in the distance.
Until it is realized, the desires and ideals of the nations must be limited to establishing a toler- able modus vivendi.
Long will the world have to await universal peace ; – but in the interim the relations of the nations to one another may be adjusted fairly well by an explicit mutual understanding, an understanding based upon international law, treaties, and especially upon a cer- tain equality in rank and mutually admitted rights, as well as upon mutual regard.
Only when this bask is established, when the equality of emancipatiion Jews with the other nations becomes a fact, can the problem presented by the Jewish Question be consid- ered solved.
They lack most of those attributes which are ; the hall-mark of a nation. They lack that character- istic national life which is inconceivable without a common language, common customs, and a common land. The Jewish people have no fatherland of their I own, though many motherlands ; they have no rallying j point, no centre of gravity, no government of their own, no accredited representatives.
They are every- where as guests, and are nowhere at home. The na- tions never have to deal with a Jewish nation but al- ways with mere Jems. The Jews are not a nation be- cause they lack a certain distinctive national character, possessed by every other nation, a character which is determined by living together in one country, under one rule.
It was clearly impossible for this national character to be developed in the Diaspora; the Jews seem rather to have lost all remembrance of their former home. Thanks to their ready adaptability, they have all the more easily acquired the alien traits of the people among whom their fate has thrown them.
Moreover, to please their protectors, not seldom did they divest themselves of their traditional individuality. They acquired, or persuaded themselves that they had acquired certain cosmopolitan tendencies which could appeal to others no more than they could bring satis- faction to the Jews themselves.
In seeking to fuse with other peoples, they delib- erately renounced, to a certain extent, their own na- tionality. Nowhere, however, did they succeed in ob- taining from their fellow-citizens recognition as na- tive-born citizens of equal rank. Not only do they feel no need for it, but they go so far as to deny the reasonableness of such a need. In a sick man, thei absence of desire for food and drink is a very serious symptom It is not always pos- sible to cure him of this ominous loss of appetite.
And even if his appetite be restored, it is still a ques- tion whether he will be able to digest food, even though he desire it. The Jews are in the unhappy condition of such a patient. We must discuss this most important point with all possible precision. We must prove that the misfortunes of the Jews are due, above all, to their 6 lack of desire for national independence; and that this desire must be aroused and maintained in time if they do not wish to be subjected forever to disgraceful ex- istence — in a word, we must prove that they must become a nation.
In the apparently insignificant circumstance, that the Jews are not considered an independent nation by other nations, rests in part, the secret of their anom- alous position and of their endless misery. The mere fact of belonging to this people constitute an indelible stigma repellent to non-Jews and painful to the Jews themselves. Nevertheless, this phenomenon has its basis rooted deep in human nature. With the loss of their father- Jews land, the Jewish people lost their inde- pendence, and fell into a decay which is not compat- ible with existence as a whole vital organism.
The state, was crushed before the eyes of the nations. But after the Jewish people had yielded up their existence as an actual state, as a political entity, they could nev- ertheless not submit to total destruction — they did not cease to exist spiritually as a nation.
The world saw in this people the uncanny form of one of the dead walking among the living. The ghostlike apparition of a people without unity or organization, without land or other bond of union, no longer alive, and yet moving about among the living, — this eerie form scarcely paralleled in history, unlike anything that preceded or followed it, could not fail to make a strange, peculiar impression upon the imagination of the nations.
And if the fear of ghosts is something inborn, and has a certain justification in the psychic life of humanity, what wonder that it asserted itself powerfully at the sight of this dead and yet living- nation? Fear of the Jewish ghost has been handed down and strengthened for generations and centuries. It led to a prejudice which, in its turn, in connection with other forces to be discussed later, paved the way for Judeophobia.
Judeo- phobia is a form of demonopathy, with the distinction that the Jewish ghost has become known to the whole race of mankind not merely to certain races, and that it is not disembodied, like other ghosts, but is a being of flesh and blood, and suffers the most excruciating pain from the wounds inflicted upon it by the fearful mob who imagine it threatens them.
Judeophobia is a psychic aberration. As a psych- ic aberration it is hereditary, and as a disease trans- mitted for two thousand years it is incurable. It is the fear of ghosts; which, as the mother of Judeophobia, has evoked that abstract, I might say Platonic hatred, thanks to which the whole Jewish nation is wont to be held responsible for the real or supposed misdeeds of its individual members, and to be libelled in so many ways, to be buffeted about so disgracefully.
Friend and foe alike have tried to explain or to justify this hatred of the Jews by bringing all sorts of charges against them.
They are said to have crucified Jesus, to have drunk blood of Christians, to have poisoned wells, to have taken usury, to have exploited the peasant and so on. These and a thousand and one other charges against an entire people have been proved groundless.
They showed their own weakness by the very fact that they had to be trumped up wholesale in order to quiet the evil conscience of the Jew-baiters, to justify the condemnation of an entire nation, to demonstrate the necessity of burning the Jew, or rather the Jewish ghost, at the stake.
He who tries to prove too much proves nothing at all. Though the Jews may justly be charged with many shortcom- ings, those shortcomings are, at all events, not such great vices, not such capital crimes as to justify the condemnation of the entire people. In individual cases, indeed, we find these accusations contradicted by the fact that the Jews get along fairly well in close intercourse with their Gentile neighbors.
Thus have Judaism and Anti-Semitism passed for centuries through history as inseparable companions. Like the Jewish people, the real wandering Jew, An- ti-Semitism, too, seems as if it would never die.
He must be blind indeed who will assert that the Jews are not the chosen people, the people chosen for uni- versal hatred. No matter how much the nations are at variance in their relations with one another, no matter how diverse in their instincts and aims, they join hands in their hatred of the Jews; on this one matter all are agreed.
The extent and the manner in which this antipathy is shown depends of course, upon the cultural status of each people. The antipathy as such, however, exists in all places and at all times, no matter whether it appears in the form of deeds of violence, as envious jealousy, or under the guise of tolerance and protection.
To be robbed as a Jew or to be protected as a Jew is equally humiliating, equal- ly hurtful to the self-respect of the Jews. Having analyzed Judeophobia as an hereditary form of demonopathy, peculiar to the human race, and having represented Anti-Semitism as based upon an inherited aberration of the human mind, we.
This view is all the more important as showing that we should at length come to believe that polemics are useless bickering, and abstain from it as a waste of time and energy, for against superstition even the gods fight vainly. Prejudice or instinctive ill-will can be satisfied by no. No people, generally speaking, has any predilec- tion for foreigner.
This fact has its ethnological basis and cannot be brought as a reproach against any people. Now, is the Jew subject to this general law to the same extent as the other nationalities? The aversion which meets the foreigner in a strange land can be repaid in equal coim in his home country.
The non-Jew pursues his own interest in a foreign country openly and without giving offence. It is everywhere considered natural that he should fight for these interests, alone or in conjunction with others. The foreigner has no need to be, or to seem to be, a patriot. But as for the Jew, not only is he not a native in his own home country, but he is also not a foreigner; he is, in very auuto, the stranger par excellence.
He is regarded as neither friend nor foe but an alien, of whom the only thing known is that j he has no home. Poeple do not care to confide in the I foreigner, or to trust the Jew.
Texts Concerning Zionism: “Auto-Emancipation”
The foreigner claims j hospitality, which he can repay in the same coin. The j Jew can make no such return ; consequently he can make no claim to hospitality. He is not a guest, much [less a welcome guest.